From Sensors to Safety: Delving into How ADAS Works

Feature image for how ADAS works

Indeed, there is no alternative to an attentive driver. But, it’s imperative for fleet managers to introduce technologies and tactics to boost their fleet’s safety and productivity — a safety support system they can rely on consistently. This is one reason why you need to understand ADAS from inside and out. As we have introduced you to the Advanced Driver Assistance System in the last post, here we will learn how the ADAS works, the components used for its efficient functioning, and why implementing the technology for your fleet could be the best business decision you have ever made. So, let’s dive right into the content, shall we?

What is an Advanced Driver Assistance System? 

Advanced Driver Assistance System or ADAS is essentially a data-driven digital technology that allows fleet drivers to navigate vehicles through the defined routes with the help of computers — ensuring a fully automated and safer driving experience for them. Such automated navigation allows better driving comfort, safety, improved traffic assistance, and lateral/longitudinal motion control. With ADAS, fleet drivers can ensure better adaptation to road hazards.  

What are the different levels of the Advanced Driver Assistance System? 

Image showing different levels of ADAS and how ADAS works

Level 0 (No Driving Automation) 

Level 0 of ADAS can be referred to as a manually controlled vehicle. In this, fleet drivers themselves ensure dynamic driving despite a lack of computer systems.  

Level 1 (Driver Assistance – Temporary Feet off) 

This is the first level of automation introduced to a fleet vehicle that features Adaptive Cruise Control. Logistics companies can use Level 1 ADAS to achieve steering, accelerating, and other hands-on/shared control assistance. The fleet driver will be completely responsible for safe driving. 

Level 2 (Partial Hands-Off Driving Automation) 

In the second level of ADAS, steering, acceleration, and deceleration are controlled by automation. However, the driver will still be required to stay attentive at all times. In addition to Level 1 features, fleet managers can also ensure lane-keep assist.  

Level 3 (Conditional Eyes-Off Driving Automation) 

Level 3 ADAS features multiple driver assistance functions that are essentially AI-driven. The computer will be making all the decisions so drivers can complete other crucial tasks. Here, the computer takes control of steering, braking, and acceleration. ADAS Level 3 is not widely used. 

Level 4 (High Driving Automation with Driver Attention off) 

Level 4 ADAS-driven fleet vehicles will be able to make decisions by themselves without driver intervention. Here, the driver will have the option to manually drive the fleet vehicle and take over the computer. 

Level 5 (Full Driving Automation with no driver required) 

Lastly, we have Level 5 ADAS where the fleet vehicles will require no human intervention and don’t provide options for drivers to take over. The only input required from the driver is the setting of the destination point. 

How ADAS works with different key components? 

Here are the different components used to make ADAS work. Let’s know about them in brief —

Image Processing Cameras 

These cameras serve as the eyes of the ADAS system as they recognize vehicles and road signs to collect input for features like Lane Keep Assist, parking assistance, collision warning, and more. 


This component of the ADAS system uses radio waves to detect the range, angle, velocity, and other characteristics of objects around the vehicle. RADAR allows for cross-traffic alerts and facilitates blind spot detection. 


Light Detection and Ranging or LiDAR transmits pulsed laser light, illuminating objects in the path of a fleet vehicle in order to measure the distance by creating 3D images. LiDAR facilitates collision avoidance and braking mitigation.  

Ultrasonic sensors 

Ultrasonic proximity sensors allow fleet drivers to detect vehicles and objects within close proximity with the help of high-frequency ultrasonic sound. These are highly useful when parking, especially when installed both in the front and rear of fleet vehicles.  

Electromagnetic sensors 

While electromagnetic sensors provide features similar to ultrasonic sensors, these work differently. Electromagnetic sensors provide audible warnings and allow for brake mitigation.  

Control Units 

The Electronic Control Unit or ECU acts as the brain of the ADAS system that essentially processes sensor data and makes real-time decisions using complex algorithms. 

Image showing different examples of ADAS systems and how they work

GPS and Mapping Data 

Global Positioning System is also an essential component of ADAS that provides the system with the vehicle’s location and surroundings. It helps enhance navigation and location-driven ADAS functions. 


Actuators are essentially electric motors that play the role of connecting the computers with the fleet vehicle’s mechanical parts. This helps execute the actions instructed by the Control Units.  

Human Machine Interface (HMI) 

HMI makes sure the ADAS system provides the fleet driver with visual and auditory alerts through haptic feedback, in-cabin display, and speakers. 

V2V or V2X 

Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) or Vehicle to Everything (V2X) are terms that refer to interconnectivity between sensors, control units, vehicle controls, and fleet drivers. This is a multifaceted ecosystem that leverages high-bandwidth, low-latency, and high-reliability links. 

How does the Advanced Driver Assistance System work? (How ADAS works?)

Image showing how ADAS works

Here are the key steps involved in the working of the Advanced Driver Assistance System. Let’s understand them in detail — 

Step 1: Data Collection 

The first step in ADAS is data collection through the cameras and sensors we discussed earlier. With the help of RADAR, LIDAR, ultrasonic/electromagnetic sensors, and cameras, ADAS is able to scan the fleet vehicle’s surroundings including vehicles, pedestrians, road signs, and obstacles. The location-related data is solicited from GPS to provide efficient navigation, while V2V frameworks ensure interconnectivity.  

Step 2: Data Processing 

As the ADAS system collects data, it also pushes the data to the data processing unit or control unit. Upon successful dispatch, the control unit will trigger real-time data processing. Machine learning algorithms help the control unit to recognize objects, roads, and hazards. The control unit makes sense of the data collected by sensors. 

Step 3: Decision-Making 

The next step in how ADAS works is decision-making in which the control unit uses the processed data to make informed decisions. For example, if the fleet vehicle is backing up into a parking space and a pedestrian walks behind the vehicle, the system will detect the pedestrian and use the actuators to engage the brakes. 

Step 4: Driver Feedback 

While providing instructions to the different mechanical systems of the fleet vehicle, the ADAS control unit will also push driver feedback. This feedback can be in the form of visual and auditory alerts. Some high-end ADAS feedback mechanisms involve haptic feedback. 

Step 5: Intervention 

Finally, the last step of the Advanced Driver Assistance System is intervention in critical scenarios. In this, the ADAS system will anticipate collisions and will intervene when driver feedback fails to alert the driver or if the driver fails to respond. The intervention will be in the form of steering correction, emergency braking, or adaptive cruise control. 

Invest in Video Telematics Solution 

Now that you are well-acquainted with what ADAS can offer your logistics company, we highly recommend you consider implementing ADAS across your fleet. According to Counterpoint’s India Telematics Ecosystem Analysis, telematics adoption is all set to rise in India due to rising demand for electric vehicles, reliable 4G connectivity, favourable government policies, and manufacturing.

The telematics device shipments are projected to reach 50 million units in 2030 at a CAGR of 31 percent. The average satisfaction across all ADAS-driven safety systems is increasing YOY. More importantly, the growth in ADAS satisfaction is due to a better consumer understanding of the technology. So, feel free to connect with our Video Telematics expert to understand how our Real-time Connected Video, DMS, and ADAS solutions can help improve your fleets’ efficiency and productivity while ensuring higher safety and reliability. 

Final thoughts on how ADAS works! 

The Advanced Driver Assistance System has taken fleet management and safety by storm. It has enabled data-driven and safer experiences for drivers ensuring improved productivity and driver satisfaction — all leading to increased customer satisfaction.

We highly recommend fleet managers invest in introducing their fleets, regardless of size, to video telematics solutions. However, it’s better to pen down your specific requirements for video telematics before reaching out to ADAS and DMS providers, ensuring you make better business decisions. Did you find this post helpful? Stay tuned for more informative blogs in the future.  

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